The Effect Of Rewards And Motivation On Student Achievement

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Introduction

Concept of student motivation is a crucial element, which impact on human behavior and academic performance. The educational researchers and educational practitioners in particular, highlight motivation to be the most significant elements in student achievement and ensuring continuous achievement. Tingley (2021), highlights that motivation can be considered as intrinsic desire of students already present in individual. Motivation can also be highlighted as the element reflected in individual students when they acquire new learning concept and new information. Teach.com, (2017), also articulates that motivation should be considered as the inner state which reveals the behavior of individuals and direct them to achieve a specific set of behavior. On the contrary another group of researchers highlighted that motivation of students is the state where the individual students demonstrate different attitude voluntarily in order to achieve a specific objective. Therefore, it can be articulated in the end that motivation should be considered as accumulation of the effort. In this research study the impact of reward and motivation on improving academic achievement of students will be analysed. The reward and motivation impact student behavior will be assessed in detail by the researcher. The outcome of this assessment will help the researcher to gain idea regarding how academic achievements can be manifested in the light of increased motivation

Lack of motivation among students is attributed to poor academic achievement of student. Motivation and reward should be considered vital to student performance. However, there is an internal conflict between the kind of impact created by reward and motivation. On many occasions, researchers considered that reward is not an element for intrinsic motivation. While rewards are provided, they can create a positive impact of what was intended. Therefore, sustainable student achievement might not come from provision of rewards only. In contrast it is important to consistently teach the students, so that the students are intrinsically motivated towards putting up better performance.

Student motivation impact on all aspects of school life ranging from attendance to academic performance encompassing the extracurricular activities as well. Promotion of the biggest motivators for students depends on the way teachers promote student grades in the current educational climate. In the current educational climate, students are under constant pressure for improving their test scores followed by undertaking responsibility and accountability for their score and test outcome. As it is  said by Essay Writing in Oman experts, Student with the disabilities who require greater motivation are faced with even greater challenge everyday as they enter classroom. As a result of the above-mentioned pressures the teachers try to tackle the intrinsic motivation of students by promising reward. This is the reason why every word has been stigmatized as a sticker against good behavior and performance conduct (Briggs, 2013). Now-a-days, rewards are offered for every minute achievement of students like completing assignment or properly doing homework. Out of all rewards provided to students, grades can be considered as the most common form of the word. In this case, achievement of marks is the good intention which is missing on a subtle level. When rewards are provided to children against academic accomplishments, they do not perceive themselves to be in control of learning. Approach and accomplishment of academic task is different in different situation. In case of a scope of getting reward, students are more attracted to perform better. In contrast, when there is no reward, the approach of students become slackened. On majority of the occasions when there is no scope of getting reward, the task outcome of students is judged to be less creative.

On analysing this difference in approach from the end of students, Blake (2015), clearly articulated that students are not able to perceive the cause-and-effect relationship between actions undertaken by them and the things which are offered to them. Repeated failure during school is the reason because of which they develop barrier for protecting themselves and gradually become uninvolved in school. Dissertation writing help in Oman experts said, This is the reason which is why a large group of researchers articulate support for replacement of award with a kind of teaching which will only emphasize on intrinsic motivation of students. Therefore, the common objective should be to make the interest of students the epicenter of learning (Baranek, 2021). Reward should be slowly annihilated from thought and perception of students whenever they exhibit the urge for better performance in academic context. Students who learn to consider themselves as casual agents in class room engage in higher risk-taking behavior. On the contrary students who perceive themselves to be more in control of learning exhibit better sense of self-esteem. They are not only reward oriented however they accomplished different academic achievements for the sake of exhibiting their learning capability only.

The above analysis clearly articulate that it is not only the fault of students to be manoeuvred completely by a sense of gaining reward by the dint of better academic performance. It is the teachers who have developed this culture and reared this tradition into the veins of academic behaviour of students. Now in order to stabilize the self-esteem and learning control of students it is important to train the teachers at first. The teachers need to undergo training regarding how to teach the students so that the intrinsic motivators in students can be tapped on to. Teachers need to learn how they can avoid preparing the vision of student to achieve better performance for gaining the upcoming external award (Foundationeducation.edu.au, 2018). In this regard the primary factor is developing autonomous environment in classroom and teaching students to perceive themselves as better decision makers. Students should also feel that they need to be in control of the material which is being taught. In the same way teachers should also be in control of the material which they are teaching. This will help both teacher and the students to learn how to acquire the concept and how to convey the concept. This is how the students as well as teachers will be in control of the context. Students will not require alluring of external motivators like your words to put a better performance. Teachers on the other hand, will not need to showcase the external rewards whether in the form of grade and marks or in the form of kind of compensation for leaving the students towards better performance (Orhan-Özen, 2017). The strategies do not appear frequently in the reading method takes for mathematics book. Nevertheless, these are the primary issues in terms of improving overall rate of achievement of students.

Skinner’s Theory Of Operant Conditioning

Skinner should be considered as the proponent of operant conditioning. This theory is based on the law of effect theory is as well. According to the theory behaviour which generally follow pleasant consequences are likely to be repeated in contrast to behaviour followed by unpleasant consequences which are very less likely to be repeated. A new term called the law of effect was introduced by this theory. It refers to reinforcement. It refers to behaviour which is reinforced and tends to be repeated. On the contrary behaviour which is not reinforced will tend to be extinguished.

The theory identifies three kind of response which can follow behavior. The first is that of neutral operant which refer to responses from environment which can either increase or decrease probability of the behavior being repeated. Marketing assignment in Salalah experts said, the second is that of reinforcers. These are responses from environment which can increase probability of the behavior being repeated. In this case, reinforces can be either negative or positive. The third kind of response is that of punishers. It refers to response from environment which can reduce the likelihood of behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior. In this case neutral operant is the ideal state which teachers should try to achieve among the host of a students (Özen, 2017). They should be neutral motivated by the presence or absence of external motivator or rewards. Reinforcers in this case are the external motivators or reward. There is no doubt that reward help in streamlining level of motivation which leads to emphasized better academic performance. On the contrary, punishers the kind of behavior which reduces the likelihood of favorable behavior being repeated. The punisher in this case should be the absence of reward for alluring better performance.

Chung and Chang (2017), however, highlights that students were rewarded for their good behaviour for large number of occasions even before this theory of operant conditioning came into existence. For example, in the year 1800 the New York city established token economy as the option for rewarding correct school work and punishing offence in school. Basically stated, operant conditioning implies that when reinforcer is delivered after specific behavioural then it will lead to strengthening of that particular behaviour.

In this case, the reinforce is something which can increase the scope of the same behavior happening again. In case of academic performance, it refers to any external gift or grid that can streamline the motivation level of students.

Cultivating Motivation Among Students

In a perfect learning environment student will have strong internal or intrinsic sense of motivation for achievement of the best future outcomes. In an ideal state, they will be observed in rapt attention during the class and they will excitedly complete their reading and homework out of purely learning desire.

However, in contrast, in the real-world students are not Stepford-like in terms of their diligence. The personal motivation and desire of the students are unique as individual students are also unique. There can be a handful of students to have strong motivation intrinsic to their learning habits for academic achievements. However, there is another large group of students who do not have this intrinsic motivation for excellence in academic accomplishments. On the contrary the other peer groups of students like teachers and parents wants them to culture this intrinsic desire for mastery in skill and knowledge. This is associated with positive recognition of the high-quality student motivation. Nevertheless, in case of many students is important to input catalysts for development of intrinsic motivation initially at an experimental stage followed by real time implementation. In order to eradicate external motivation and replace the same with internal motivation it is important to define intrinsic motivation (Yildirim, 2017). As it is defined by online assignment help experts, Extrinsic motivation is characterized by external elements. Student might be motivated to learn or achieve not out of personal interest or desire for learning however from external motivation of pleasing others by meeting their expectation. It can be the expectation of the parent or the teacher or other expectations like achieving desired GPA. External motivation is also including punishment and reward. Students have the fear of punishment related with achieving poor grade for the desire of achieving better reward which is accompanied by high level of GPA. In either way the desire of the students to learn does not motivate him or her. On the contrary, the incentive in this case is the fear of failure or the urge of attaining success.

The Pros And Cons Of External Motivation For Students

Using the extrinsic motivation for pushing students towards creation of intrinsic demand for achievement might be effective. However, it is transitory full stop it implies that every time a new extrinsic motivation which will be surpassing the previous motivator, will be required. They can be responsible for quickly losing the interest in promised to reward and punishment, forcing the increase in stakes. In case if any improvement in the reward system is not develop them the motivation of students will decline as an outcome (Shifrer, Turley and Heard, 2017). A study conducted by the mathematical association of America and other societies have exhibited that provision of students with experience motivation might be problematic because the reward is the only reason for participation. Once external rewards are removed, the interest of students will diminish absolutely.

Definition Of Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is largely different from extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is defined by the deep seeded and inherent interest in the student over a specific topic which is accountable for understanding of the relevance of the topic with any of the critical life elements of the student which is certainly not achieving the award. The desire among students to learn is natural and it is not felt by the criteria of achieving a specific grid or another form of reward. It is purely because the student wants to expand his or her knowledge in that specific domain of study. In this case students dedicate time and effort for learning a subject purely because they want to achieve mastery over that specific subject (Young, 2018). Therefore, it is evident by the end of this part of the discussion that reward and motivations have a positive impact on student performance. However external rewards only have a temporary influence on the learning behaviour of students. In contrast intrinsic motivators have a sustainable impact on academic performance of students. Nevertheless, considering the current educational culture it is difficult to bring about the original or intrinsic motivation among the students by avoiding all kind of external motivators like grade or other form of compensation from the student life.

Steps Of Developing Internal Motivation

In context of learning medium, this research study has already established that intrinsic motivation is developed not from external factor like great and status but from genuine interest and ambition. Like altruism, it assumes no reward. However, like altruism it is however difficult to corroborate. In this case the researchers estimate that even if the best students in a class accomplish highest level of credit out of enjoyment in an assignment it does not imply that they are not experiencing the requirement for external reward like attention or approval from the teacher. Some psychologists also state the fact that pure intrinsic motivation does not exist at all. Professor Stephen Reiss from Ohio State university highlights that human motivations cannot be forced into a specific category or other category and their labelled as good motivation or bad motivation (Banerjeeet al., 2017). There for external motivations can never be termed as bad motivation and internal motivation cannot also be termed as a good motivation. In this regard large number of human need and motivations should be combined and analysed to stratify them into specific categories and then studying that one kind of motivation is better than other. Nevertheless, in this regard it can be highlighted that even if external motivators are good for a student in helping him or her to achieve good educational outcome, their impact is transitory and temporary. Hence it is important to think about strategies which can foster and cultivate intrinsic motivation among the students.

The first strategy of developing intrinsic motivation is rethinking of reward. Essay writer highlighted that for simple and mechanic tasks the external rewards motivate students to perform better. However, in case of task which required thinking out of box, students’ natural interest full stock in this case reward can lead to aggression in performance of students who wants to accomplish the task faster and do better than others. In this case the intrinsic motivation is lost and the thinking and creativity is not implanted in the task which can lead to perpetual failure. Atlassian autonomy is another important motivator towards intrinsic interest development among students. The Atlassian is Australian software company where engineers can work on anything, they want for 24 hours. However, after that they are needed to report back, they are working out come to the group leader. In this case it can be demonstrated that majority of the lucrative ideas developed by them are achieved during overnight delivery of creativity. This is a kind of flexibility that can be provided to students as well. The learning speed and flexibility of individual students is different. Therefore, they should get the opportunity of learning in their favorable setting and in favorable time slot and time preferences so that their brain is mostly active. In the most active state, the students perceive original sense of interest in study (Cruickshank, 2017). The act of imparting education can also be modified in such a way that will portray the aspect of achieving mastery over a subject absolutely phenomenal. It will also be a kind of external motivation however would lead students to cultivate a sense of intrinsic motivation which is the only basis of achieving real mastery over a subject.

Wang et al., (2018), argues that on most occasions’ students are attracted towards external motivators and they become devoid of any internal motivation since they do not feel any higher purpose rather than achieving those external motivators. In this regard it is important to make students feel that they have a higher purpose rather than only engaging in the act of achieving something temporary and immediate. On the contrary some psychologists state that many students feel the formal kind of education as a compulsion in their life. Therefore, it is important for parents and teachers to make them feel that education is a choice and not a staple requirement for them. In case if this can be achieved then it will be clarified whether students are actually engaging or non-engaged to the academic purpose from an inherent perspective (Young, 2018). However, considering the formal means of education it is important to state that in order to cultivate intrinsic motivation for education among students it is very important to avoid using the fear of punishment as a motivator for better educational outcome. Irrespective of the kind of outcome it can help students to achieve it always gives birth to robotics and among the students. Phd proposal writing help in Muscat experts suggested The student computes the kind of disastrous outcome he or she might experience if a certain level of great is not achieved. As an outcome his parameter of achievement is never crossing a certain limit beyond which he or she will not experience any punishment (Foundationeducation.edu.au, 2018). Self-direction should also be promoted and compliance should be avoided. In many cases the teachers are not able to control a group of students and their behavior goes out of hand. In such situations that teachers take the help of threatening students however which does not help them in the long run.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be highlighted that students should be made more potentially aware of self-direction. Students should be made to understand the importance of good discipline and behaviour. It is not good practice to make a student feel that he or she cannot improve. Irrespective of the intelligence quotient of the student every individual student should be made to feel capable of doing something. It can also be summarised that it is important in order to help him accomplish a sense of achievement which gives him a direction to do hard work and achieve better performance. In case if the student inherently feels the need and objective ahead of him it will help in developing a sense of loving towards the respective subject in which the student might be weak.

Reference List

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Baranek, L.K. 2021. Scholarworks.gvsu.edu. Available at: https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1292&context=theses#:~:text=Intrinsically%20motivated%20students%20experience%20school,errors%20in%20the%20learning%20process. (Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Blake, C. 2015. Cultivate Learning: Extrinsic and Instrinsic Motivation | Resilient Educator (2015). Available at: https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/cultivating-student-motivation/ (Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Briggs, S. 2013. 25 Ways to Cultivate Intrinsic Motivation. InformED. Available at: https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/intrinsic-motivation/(Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Chung, L.Y. and Chang, R.C., 2017. The effect of gender on motivation and student achievement in digital game-based learning: A case study of a contented-based classroom. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education13(6), pp.2309-2327.

Cruickshank, V., 2017. The influence of school leadership on student outcomes. Open Journal of Social Sciences5(9), pp.115-123.

Foundationeducation.edu.au, 2018. Effects of rewards on students (2018). Available at: https://www.foundationeducation.edu.au/articles/2018/09/effects-rewards-students (Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Orhan-Özen, Sevil. (2017). The Effect of Motivation on Student Achievement. Available at: 10.1007/978-3-319-56083-0_3.(Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Özen, S.O., 2017. The effect of motivation on student achievement. In The factors effecting student achievement (pp. 35-56). Springer, Cham.

Shifrer, D., Turley, R.L. and Heard, H., 2017. Do Teacher Financial Awards Improve Teacher Retention and Student Achievement in an Urban Disadvantaged School District?. American Educational Research Journal54(6), pp.1117-1153.

Teach.com, 2017. How to Spark Intrinsic Motivation in Your Students – Blog (2017). Available at: https://teach.com/blog/how-to-spark-intrinsic-motivation-in-your-students/ (Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Tingley, S.C. 2021. How to Encourage Intrinsic Motivation in Students (2021). Available at: https://www.wgu.edu/heyteach/article/how-encourage-intrinsic-motivation-students1809.html#:~:text=Asking%20students%20what%20they’re,ability%20to%20choose%20for%20themselves. (Accessed: 3 March 2021).

Wang, S., Dai, J., Li, J., Wang, X., Chen, T., Yang, X., He, M. and Gong, Q., 2018. Neuroanatomical correlates of grit: Growth mindset mediates the association between gray matter structure and trait grit in late adolescence. Human Brain Mapping39(4), pp.1688-1699.

Yildirim, I., 2017. The effects of gamification-based teaching practices on student achievement and students’ attitudes toward lessons. The Internet and Higher Education33, pp.86-92.

Young, S., 2018. Teacher Retention and Student Achievement: How to Hire and Retain Effective Teachers. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin84(3).

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