Female have lower rate of being arrested in comparison to their male counterparts for what all category of crime other than for prostitution. This is true in case of all nations for which crime data are available. It is true for all athletes as well as racial groups as well as for every historical period. In USA women comprise of only 20% of prisoners of the most dangerous crime categories. In female have lower representation rate compared to male in every serious crime category. Since 1960, the number of female criminals has been less by about 15% in case of homicide and other kind of aggravated assault. In case of serious kind of property crimes like burglary or robbery it has been less than 10% (Turner and Johnson, 2003). The objective of this research study is to understand how gender impacts the kind of law violation or crime in the society. Other than prostitution, the female representation in case of minor property crimes like larceny theft or forgery or embezzlement has been greatest. Number of females arrested for this kind of crime has been about 30 to 40% high, especially since 1970. Theft and fraud committed by women incorporate shoplifting which fall into the category of larceny theft for bi bad check along with welfare and credit fraud. These are all compatible with the traditional female domestic or female consumer roles.
The trend in female crime in relation to male crime have been more complex. Some researchers highlight that rate of crime among female is increasing at a faster rate in comparison to the predominant categories of prime which are committed more by male. It is measured on the basis of the percentage of arrest of both female and male culprits. It has already been evident in case of my not kind of property related crime where the rate of arrest of female culprits has been doubled in the 15 years’ time period from 1960 to 1975. The rate of a female arrest in this category has been 15% which has now increased up to 30%. There is a small yet significantly consistent amount of increase in case of substance abuse category however which remain less than 20% for all the respective categories. Assignment writer derived from concluded data The same statistics is evident in context to measure kind of property crime which however is less than 10 to 15% on an average (Rankins, 1964). Percentage of female criminals arrested over the time period has reduced for other crime category like that of homicide or prostitution. The rate of has also fluctuated in case of other categories like aggravated assault as well as drug law violations. The pattern of crime increases or decrease is corroborated by other data sources as well. National crime victimization survey of different countries asked victims regarding gender of offenders in crime where the offender was located. Percentage of different female offenders as reported by victims has been similar to or even lower in comparison to the female percentage of arrest for the comparable categories. Different self-report also confirms that UCR pattern of the relatively low female involvement in serious kind of offence along with greater involvement in less serious categories (Rapaport, 1991).
From multiple sources it is evident that female criminals are less involved in the serious kind of offence. This highlights that female criminals have the potential of doing less harm. The act of violence committed by women in comparison to those committed by main account for a smaller number of injury and the serious harm to people in society. The property crime conducted by female involve less amount of monetary loss or property damage. The propensity among female to repeat offence is a much lesser in comparison to male counterparts. Long-time criminal career is lower among the women which indicates that women have greater propensity to exhibit change of mortality and values after undergoing punishment. In case of prostitution, it is evident that a majority of women pursue brief career in this field in comparison to the length of criminal career of main in similar kind of crime like a drug offence. In case of minor property crime like that of shoplifting or other kind of forgery, the crime is committed once or twice in the lifetime of majority of female culprits (Baskin and Sommers, 1998). In case of crime operations,assignment help muscat defined it is observed that female culprits generally operate solo. However, the male offenders generally operate in gangs. When women criminals involved in any act of crime the group formed by them is usually small and non-permanent. However, in almost all countries it is observed that women generally operate as accomplice to male in any crime operations. The male members are overwhelmingly dominant in case of more organised crime and the moral lucrative kind of crime. The propensity stated above, is similar in underworld as well as in upper-world. The female criminals do not have the propensity of getting involved in the delinquent gangs of criminals. This is a typical distinction consistent with the attitude of females who operate alone and the male criminals who generally prefer to work in gang and subculture of criminals. In the onset of 21st century it was evident that the involvement of female criminals in gang was demonstrated as auxiliary to the male members in the operating gang (FoxandHartnagel, 1979). During 1980 and 1990 the study of criminal gang highlighted that there was the increase in involvement of girls by about 15%. In fact, emergence of all female criminal groups was also noticed. However, the violence committed by all female groups remained very less in a number in comparison to the crime committed by the male gangs (Morris and Perry, 2017).
The criminal justice system exhibited greater leniency as well as chivalry towards the female criminals. This is the most important explanation against lower official offence rate of women in comparison to that of men. Similarly, there is a tendency in the justice system to be less compassionate and lenient towards the female criminals in recent time might explain the increase in level of female criminals being arrested. However there seems to be relatively very small difference existing between adult male and adult female in context to the likelihood of a restore conviction where there is lower probability of women criminals being imprisoned (Castro-Perazaet al., 2019). This difference can be because of large number of factors ranging from pregnancy to responsibility of small children. The list of factors also includes the greater likelihood of demonstrating remorse and the overall perception that women are less dangerous and easily amenable to the process of rehabilitation.
In terms of historical representation, essay writer found women are heavily underrepresented as actors participating in the criminal justice system however, they are over represented as the survivors of the gender-based crime, violence, harassment as well as discrimination. Identification as well as understanding the reality of women and men within the community and gender-based bias which might promote discrimination, limits access to justice as well as prevention of full participation of women in criminal justice system underpinning any assessment of criminal justice process and therefore inform any recommendation for technical assistance (Liu, 2018).
A fair as well as effective criminal justice system respect fundamental right of both gender of criminals. It is considered to be gender responsive and the work towards identification and addressing the gender bias which have permitted to the overall criminal justice system for prevention of gender-based crimes and protecting and assisting the victim of survivors along with encouraging active participation of women in all level of the criminal justice system (Akhmedshina, 2020). It reflects the kind of population it tries to serve in context to ethnicity, religion, language or geography. Is protect as well as service all people equally with reflection towards regional as well as international standards and rites for the purpose of human rights protection.
In overall criminal justice system, the gender related trying is presented as violence against a specific general group followed by discrimination against specific general root along with sexual harassment. The root of gender-based violence is existing in context to unequal power relation between men and women. The persistent discrimination against victims can be potentially highlighted through the nature of crime committed by male and female criminals in every society.
Gender And Bail
Majority of research study examining the difference of gender in the criminal justice proceeding focus on sentence phase, research study which examines gender difference including pretrial release and bail is not popular however important (Montgomery and Cowen, 2020). For more information get university assignment help from OmanEssay.
Reduction Of Gender Gap Over Time
Empirical research findings regarding reduction of gender gap in the crime rate over time find three popular explanation. The first is that of liberation of women. The second explanation is that of economic marginalisation and the last is that of a reduction in chivalry. On the basis of the liberation theory, it can be articulated that the rate of crime committed by women increased during 1960 and 1970 because women were provided more exposure regarding economy and social independence. One proponent of the above theory highlights that convergence in gender roles in case of crime accounted for convergence in gender gap in all kinds of criminal situation. And other contradictory very and highlights that the labor force participation of women increased which created new opportunity for conducting crime in organisations. Both of the above-mentioned variants have also been criticized for the assumption that labor force participation and improved economic conditions have accounted for crime committed by women where as these conditions have not accounted for increasing crime committed by men. Moreover, reduction of gender gap is most pronounced in case of crime which are related with the proliferation role of women including larceny or fraud or forgery (Zhu, Sze and Bai, 2021). Perhaps empirical research provides very less evidence that labour force participation of women has increased the rate of crime committed by them. As an outcome of contemporary research has emphasized on the hypothesis of economic marginalization. This hypothesis suggest that increase in financial hardship of women community which is higher in comparison to male counterparts, is the actual reason for or reduction of gender gap in terms of crime committed. Some handful research did assessment of the hypothesis empirically, and the current research used restricted measure of the hypothesis of economic marginalization. By reviewing these research studies in detail, it can be argued that there is a need for further research for addressing interplay existing between particular elements of poverty of women which impact criminal rate which also include entries in rate of single motherhood followed by persistent gender equality in wage and the changes happening in policy of social welfare. Therefore, it can be highlighted that the increasing and domination of male members in society has now been more a structured. Domestic crime against women is now more formulated. Essay assignment help professional derived progress of women in terms of better workplace participation is a reality of the modern day however the same cannot be said in context to overall progress made by women in the society. There has been increase in percentage of male dominance over women in every cases (Zhu, Sze and Bai, 2021). In fact, in case of organisations women are seldom found to be occupying managerial or executive positions. On the contrary majority of frontline operations are done by women in organisations. Therefore, it is evident that the equilibrium of social participation is not achieved which is why it is viable that participation of women in crime rates can increase. On some cases it can be late by demand for economic fulfillment and on other cases it can be accounted to the theory of liberation from the bondage of the social hypocrisy.
There is also a third explanation of the reduction in gender gap in terms of crime committed. This is the reduction of the chivalry hypothesis. It highlights that the observed changes are because of the changing attitude among the people responsible for a law enforcement. A specially gender gap in the rate of arrest highlights that the chivalry exhibited by law enforcement personnel towards women and reduction of the gap highlights reduction in attitude towards women over the years (Cassese and Holman, 2018). Nowadays the police are not hesitant in arresting women criminals. On the basis of empirical evidence, it can be highlighted that a reduction in chivalry has clearly accounted for change in the gender gap in committing crime factors are also equally important. Nevertheless, there will be ongoing debate regarding the veracity e of the last hypothesis with some researchers constantly putting forward the argument that female criminals are more harshly treated in comparison to male criminals in some cases of offence.
Research Regarding Female Offending
Incongruence with economic marginalisation theory majority of ethnographic as well as qualitative research of crime committed by women demonstrate some structural disadvantage. Empirical findings generally emphasize on the women of offenders and do not clearly address gender gap in case of funding. On the contrary these research outcomes highlight in-depth analysis of factors related with chronic offending among female groups. As a group this set of research studies demonstrate that poverty followed by unemployment as well as single motherhood has combined in creating conditions of extreme hardship in terms of economy which has also been directly related with typical conditions of life of women and increase in women stepping into a life of crime (Messerschmidt, 2000). For example, there has been several research studies which focused on relation between abuse during childhood, criminal offence committed by women and the economic hardship experience by them. Online assignment help experts defined There has been other group of research study which demonstrate how the prospect of living in marginalized community has facilitated the entry into a criminal network as well as peer groups playing critical role in initiating women to step into the act of crime and helped them in sustaining the criminal lifestyle in future purpose is also. It can also be accounted that on many cases the act of turning towards crime can be perceived as the attempt of supporting children as well as other members of the family when the women confronted very difficult conditions in terms of economic hardship. Therefore, many macro levels as well as a social psychological process are accountable for chronic offence committed by women.
Gender And Juvenile Delinquency
Researchers have always emphasized on juvenile delinquency which involves the particular common and non-serious kind of delinquency. In this case there is emphasis on understanding social psychological mechanism contributing towards gender gap in delinquency. Recent research over this mechanism has highlighted that gender gap reflects gender difference in times of exposure towards factors which makes the act of violating the law more feasible and also account for gender differences in light of the above stated factors.
Social psychological mechanism which has been mostly mentioned in research on gender and delinquency are evident within families. In particular some research study highlights greater exposure of girls compared to boys to supervision and monitoring by parents along with indirect control like emotional bonding is the reason why women become more prone to crime on many occasions. However, it can also be articulated that gender gap is not the generic outcome of girls being subjected to greater familial control however also reflecting differential impact of this kind of control over girl’s vs boys (Simpson and Elis, 1995). For evidence even if girls are more strictly supervised the delinquency of boys appear to be influenced more strongly by means of supervision as well as monitoring. However, delinquency of girls is influenced majorly by emotional link to the family. In summarisation it can be highlighted that the parents control misbehaviour of girls with subtitle and covert process where as boys are controlled with direct strategies like punishment.
There is another individual factor which received attention in research regarding general role in in crime. This argument is related with liberation theses and it highlights that feminine roles are responsible for restraining of delinquency in comparison to masculine roles. In this regard there has been large number of research studies in late 1970 regarding general role and delinquency. Nevertheless, empirical research has been inconsistent mainly because the operationalizing gender roles in different way in different research study including the trait and attitude and control of a family along with behavioral expectation of female members of the family (Cassese and Holman, 2018). The comparatively recent trend highlights cultural definition of gender or a hegemonic definition of gender. It also facilitates the widely popular belief and attitude which supports subordination of female to male under the rule of patriarchy. The comparative gender based crime data also available at instant assignment help of OmanEssay
The hegemonic definition of gender demonstrates some family in ideal incorporating great capacity for nurturing as well as passivity and connectedness with others along with physical weakness. In contrast, the masculine ideal are more focused on competitiveness followed by aggression and independence. The masculine counterpart also refers to exhibition of strength as an ideal. Therefore, it is evident that femininity has been more inconsistently defined in comparison to definition of masculinity which is more focused on some very specific ideas. Masculinity in terms of the social perspective has been very congruent with victimizing others physically or observing their property (FoxandHartnagel, 1979). Different research studies highlight acceptance of this kind of general definition which can be considered as a critical contributor to the development of general gap and analogous law violation. On the contrary some other researchers argue that boys who have inherent hegemonic definition of masculinity are having higher level of propensity to be engaged in acts of crime and violence.
There is another individual factor receiving attention in various research work regarding gender and delinquency. This is the attitude of taking risk. This hypothesis suggests that youth developing a test of risk taking are more likely in comparison to others in exhibition of thrill-seeking behavior. It can include delinquency. The theory of power control of gender and delinquency also highlights that one of the most important reasons why male is more feasible compared to female to become delinquent is that the male members of the society are preferred in terms of risk taking. This can be one important explanation why female criminals are always perceived to be counterpart of male criminals who get the prime position in a criminal gang.
In conclusion to this research, it is pertinent to state that male attempt of demonstrating masculinity through crime and violence has found legitimate channels to encompass female in the chain of crime. Structural barriers as well as a psychosocial and psychological mechanism in analyzing violence by men I have argued on many occasions with proposition of solo and bold demonstration of the propensity of committing crime by women. However, the patriarchal hegemony has always remained as a contradictory proposition as to why women cannot be offered the primary position in acts of crime. This has perhaps given words to the delinquent which has kept its legacy running for generations among the criminals. It can also be concluded that delinquency has moderated the kind of treatment towards male and female criminals. The dissolving nature of perceiving women as inferior to men has also changed the attitude of legal personal towards women which is why the evidence of increase in crime committed by women in modern society is justified.
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