The understanding of the human muscular system and its interaction with the external environment remains one of the hot topics in human medicine. The major component of human muscles is muscle fibre and its sizes.
Being a part of large size population, skeletal phenotypic differs from age, gender and ratio. Difference between the phenotypic traits could be visualized because of environmental and genetic or interaction of both the factors. There are numerous epidemiological studies have sought for discovering positive and negative environmental experience linked with musculoskeletal system disorders.
There are three main skills strength, endurance and speed and other two mobile and complementary skills are used in playing supportive performances(Poulsen et.al, 2011). All these skills are highly affected when the body finds it difficult to objectify internal factors, however, the impact of external factors is more in sportive performance than internal. Under the external factors like temperature, climate and humidity become evident during the development of muscular strength in the indispensable period of timing. The aim of this report is to highlight the environmental factors affecting human muscular system development as in terms of intrinsic genetic differences nutrition and application of exercise.
External Factor Exposure
It has been explored by assignment writer, biomedical load, psychological factors critically influence the development of muscular system disorders.
The biomedical load results from various physical activities characterize biomedical activities. With respect to the position of upper limbs, trunk and necks, the biomedical load can be distinguished. Unlike biomedical load, vibration is characterized by amplitude, frequency and acceleration. That means doses will changes as it reaches to different body parts. Similarly psychological factors like monotonous work, time pressure, autonomy, support from colleagues and quantify job according to work extended included support(Holz, et.al, 2010).
In an outlook of Çakira et.al, 2016, factors affecting during sport, brings out envision changes that can be done. For instance, heat tolerance is related to the humidity level. On average, the body temperature should not exceed 50-55°C and airflow within internal temperature should be kept standardized through evaporation.
If the environment is humidified by 100%, then body temperature will start increase as soon as the temperature of the environment moves beyond 35 degree Celsius. On that note, by adapting heat requirements increases blood penetration in active and passive blood tissues.
In a meanwhile, the study conducted by cakire has revealed when the temperature exceeds, significant increases in the heart rate, sprint, flexibility, left and right strength strip, shuttle runs, agility vertical jump score. This study also revealed the reaction of an organism as a warning to cold heart weather is meant to increase blood pressure. Therefore it can be deduced temperature increases affects the muscle flexibility positively.
According to Zorba (2009), specific muscle temperature with respect to body temperature will affect pain movement. That means if muscles temperature increased by 46 degree Celsius it will also result in an increase in 29% flexibility.
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How Environment Condition Affect Body Functioning
Heat, cold, work time pressure and Altitudes are the common factors that affect skeletal muscular development to a wider range
A hot temperature in the outside environment causes your body temperature to rise. This is the same thing that happened during exercise that forces muscles to extend body temperature. When a temperature increases as shown in the body, that means muscle temperature will rise and uses more Adenosine triphosphate under anaerobic respiration. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes water drops down cramping and induces fatigue. The other benefits of high temperature are increased flexibility of joints that reduces chances of injury(Bailey, 2011).
Contradictory to high temperature, cold temperature decreases both core and muscle temperature. When it is low temperature, that means joints will experience less flexibility and more likely to felt strained due to vigorous joint pain. A cold temperature forces body to get shiver to maintain proper body temperature also forces the body to loosen up calories at the end decreased body experiences
Similarly, in contrast, temperature, higher altitude has a significant impact on requirements and absorption of oxygen by the body. At the higher elevation, there will be less oxygen predominant causes extraneous work for the muscle to get work. This predisposes muscles working in anaerobic conditions that lead to fatigue and quick endurance. Prolonged exposure to high altitude creating adaptation in the muscle switching back to the utilization of carbohydrates to fats.
Genetic Factor Affecting Skeletal Muscle development
PGC-1α and, possibly, PGC-1β transcriptional coactivator regulated the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and its expression is get reduced in Type -2 diabetic patients. Also with the age expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1β in the muscle of all subjects will reduce significantly(Roman-Liu, 2013).
Since skeletal sites are the common site for disposing of insulin-stimulated glucose, ageing becomes a very risk factor for the Type 2 diabetic person. Ageing is also a known factor for reducing VO2max, and a low VO2m that ill enhance pathogenesis type 2 diabetes.
Both PGC-1α and PGC-1β regulated metabolic functioning and oxidative phosphorylation in the muscle cell that activates a large number of nuclear transcription. By Ling et.al, 2005, PGC-1α and PGC-1β profoundly alter mitochondrial mechanism and found to be inherited gene in elderly causing low muscle weakening(Rehfeldt et.al, 2000)
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It is summarized in the report with an increase in agility coordination with increase environment temperature, the muscle will produce slow strength. Like this, several affecting causes are being highlighted in this report to determine the direct impact of the environment on human skeletal system development. For instance, a hot temperature in the outside environment causes human body temperature to rise. This is the same thing that happened during exercise that forces muscles to extend body temperature. Similarly. When it is low temperature, joints will experience less flexibility and more likely to felt strained. In addition to this at a higher elevation, there will be less oxygen predominant causes extraneous load for the muscle to do to exercise. We have described genetic factors affecting the rate at which skeletal system developed such as with age PGC-1α and PGC-1β profoundly alter mitochondrial mechanism thus slower muscle growth.
Bailey.J(2011).Environmental Effects on the Muscular System. Available at-https://www.sportsrec.com/366845-the-outside-and-environmental-effects-on-the-muscular-system.html [Data Accessed on 11 Feb. 21]
Çakir, E., Yüksek, S., Asma, B., &Arslanoglu, E. (2016). Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(10), 3985-3993.
Holz, J. D., Sheu, T. J., Drissi, H., Matsuzawa, M., Zuscik, M. J., & Puzas, J. E. (2007). Environmental agents affect skeletal growth and development. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 81(1), 41-50.
Ling, C., Poulsen, P., Carlsson, E., Ridderstråle, M., Almgren, P., Wojtaszewski, J., … &Vaag, A. (2004). Multiple environmental and genetic factors influence skeletal muscle PGC-1α and PGC-1β gene expression in twins. The Journal of clinical investigation, 114(10), 1518-1526.
Poulsen, P., Wojtaszewski, J. F., Petersen, I., Christensen, K., Richter, E. A., Beck-Nielsen, H., &Vaag, A. (2005). Impact of genetic versus environmental factors on the control of muscle glycogen synthase activation in twins. Diabetes, 54(5), 1289-1296.
Roman-Liu, D. (2013). External load and the reaction of the musculoskeletal system–A conceptual model of the interaction. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 43(4), 356-362.
Rehfeldt, C., Stickland, N. C., Fiedler, I., & Wegner, J. (1999). Environmental and genetic factors as sources of variation in skeletal muscle fibre number. BAM-PADOVA-, 9(5), 235-254.
Zorba, E., Saygın, Ö. (2009). Fizikselaktivitevefizikseluygunluk. İncelerOfset Mat. Amb. San. Tic. Ltd. Şti. İstanbul