Reflective Models | Core Concepts For Reflective Practice


The term reflective practices indicates a systematic reviewing process for all the teachers allowing them to make a connection between experiences such students can attain maximum progress. In the last 30 years, reflective practices have been widely adopted by teachers to meet the challenges posed by a rapidly evolving society. The need for entrenchment in the study programme is dictated by higher education transformation which institution is currently experiencing nowadays. 

John Dewey and Donald Schön defined the reflective practices “phenomenological” that in given phenomena experiences are gained, interpreted and provides insights. 

The reflective practices root can be traced in the early 20th century when John Dewey wrote about it along with his experiences. He explained in terms of reflection that reflective practices can be defined as an active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief in the lights of sharing knowledge. In this article, we have tried to shown reflective models that are highly used by teachers for evaluating student’s performance

The Multiple Components Of Reflective Practice

As per several types of previous researches and analysts, reflective practice is a process of assigning our own thoughts for the purpose of professional development. For any professional, this is an intrinsic highly relevant towards control process development. 

Schön (1991) identified two types of reflection that are particularly important for developing teaching practices. 

  • Reflection in Doing- This involves reflection in the moments as it proceeds in the classroom, making judgments and changes action based on the past experiences happen in the same scenario. For instance, gathering feedback from students after the lecture or conducting any activity for checking students learning etc.
  • Reflection on Action- Reflection takes place just after the teaching here you will gain experiences to inform changes. For example, writing a journal on your experiences what you have felt after teaching

In both cases, reflection is linked to past and future practices. In case you need more information on Schon model, then OmanEssay based essay typer team will give exact information in less time. 

Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning (1984)

This four-stage model is supporting reflection and drawing a conclusion from hands-on experiences that will combine everyday experiences and research based information.

At the first stage, a person gets tangible experiences that are defined as event occurs during teaching. This experience formed when you have paused for reflection

In the second stage, reflection observation will be described as initial experience based on the reflection

At the third stage, Abstract Conceptualisation, a person explores reflection in greater depth. This stage can be supplemented with literature or supports of colleagues.

At the fourth stage, a person forms the plan and put it into practice or underpins new ideas based on the experiences.

Gibbs’s Reflective Cycle (1998)

In comparison to the previous two theories, Gibb’s reflective cycle is more comprehensive; provide a prompt solution to the questions. It shows multiple stages for the process of reflection begins with outline experience being reflected on. 

In the description stage, a person will describe in details what was happened during the event. Some question asked by professional like what were my results?

Similarly in the feeling stage, a person explores thoughts and feeling at that time. Like it is said by online essay writer, a person usually discovers the answer of the following question like-

  • What he was feeling at the starting of a session
  • How did he feel when the question raises the question?

In the third stage, evaluation gives a person an opportunity to explore those areas that needed to be addressed. This stage seems to be more effective when a person focuses on understanding its experiences as well as students learning.

At the analysis stage, new information would be extracted when a person gets deeper and support this with its literature

In conclusion stage, a person came to know at what segments he required to add more efforts. At last in the action plan, a person intends to bring the changes in the practices

Rolfe, Freshwater, & Jasper ‘What’ Model (2001)

Rolfe, Freshwater, & Jasper ‘What’ Model in 2001 proposed a What Model signified an iterative process consisting three simple questions like what was the response of other, so does this tell about the relationship with teaching and Do a person need to make changes or improvement. 

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Concepts Associated With Teachers Experiences In Higher Studies
Grimmett, MacKinnon, Erickson, & Riechen (1990)Understanding stages of reflective learningTechnical- Instruments mediation Reflection among competitors Reconstructing experiences
Valli(1990)Teaching imagesNon reflective decision making ability
Killion and Todnem(1991)Reflection typesReflection on action Reflection in action’ Reflection for action
Ross(1990)Teaching reflection categoriesIdentifying education dilemma
Lee (2000) Understanding reflective thinkingReflectivity, recall, and rationalization
Liu(2015)Transformative learning experiencesImaginative conceptualization, reflection based action etc
Source- Bubnys, Remigijus & Zavadskienė, Loreta. (2017).

Pros And Cons Of Reflective Practice Models

It offers a well structured needed to be followedImplies each stage must be defined at each level
It provides useful information at the very beginningIn real context, a person can’t simply started taking these stages into consideration
It allows a person to access all the stages of any situationIt is not necessary models can be applied in every situation
It depicts the end point of the situationReflective practice is continuous evolving process

Criterion Of Reflection That Is Important In Contemporary Education

Rodgers (2002) has proposed four criteria important in contemporary education that can be used to uncover the significance of reflective practices in higher education

A reflection is meaning-based process moves a learner to understand the experiences and reevaluate their action, feelings and derives what improvement they needed to be addressed

  1. It is systematic, disciplined thinking way, and rigorous. 
  2. It has to happen into a community
  3. It requires an attitude for valuing personal growth

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The reflective practice concept in context with teaching experiences always remains to be the most important issues for researchers and a wide range of theorist. In this blog, we have taken each model that has to be carefully taken into consideration before applying reflective practice. Such as Kolb’s four-stage model which is supporting reflection and drawing a conclusion from hands-on experiences that will combine everyday experiences and research based information. We have drawn table associated with teacher experiences in higher experiences which helps in defining several concepts associated with reflective practices. At last, we enumerated the pros and cons of reflective practised based model implies it offers a well structured needed to be followed on the other side It is not necessary models can be applied in every situation.


Bubnys, Remigijus & Zavadskienė, Loreta. (2017). EXPLORING THE CONCEPT OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE IN THE CONTEXT OF STUDENT-CENTERED TEACHER EDUCATION. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. 1. 91. 10.17770/sie2017vol1.2250.

Gibbs, G. (1998). Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning. London:Further EducationalUnit

UCD(2020). REFLECTIVE PRACTICE MODELS. Available at- Data accessed on 22 January 2021)

University of Cambrdige(2020). Reflective Practice Toolkit. Available at-{ data accessed on 22 January 2021)

Rodgers, C. (2002). Defining reflection: Another look at John Dewey and reflective thinking. Teachers College Record, 104 (4), 842–866.

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